What Alcohol Can Do to Your Body Is Not Always So “Cheer”y

Alcoholic Beverages

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“Cheers!” is a word often associated with alcohol consumption, conjuring up images of celebration and good times. However, it is important to remember that alcohol is a drug as much as any other drug, prescription or otherwise. In fact, alcohol is the most widely abused drug in the U.S. Alcohol misuse affects every organ in the body and has both long- and short-term consequences.

Drinking too much alcohol on a regular basis most significantly affects the liver, a major organ responsible for processing many substances in our bodies. The liver eliminates alcohol from the body through a series of steps using substances called enzymes. Enzymes break down alcohol into other materials called metabolites that the body can more easily handle (or get rid of). Some metabolites produced in the breakdown of alcohol are toxic. Excessive, long-term exposure to these toxic chemicals can lead to inflammation, liver tissue damage and even cancer.

Long-term effects of alcohol can cause several types of liver disease, including:

  • Alcoholic fatty liver disease. It’s one of the earliest stages of liver disease. Too much alcohol can cause fat deposits to form in the liver. Abstaining from alcohol can reverse the damage from alcoholic fatty liver disease.
  • Alcoholic hepatitis. In addition to fatty deposits, this disorder also causes scarring of the liver and impairs liver function. Mild cases may be reversible, but severe cases can lead to liver failure.
  • Alcoholic cirrhosis. The most serious of alcohol-related liver injuries, alcoholic cirrhosis leads to hard scar tissue that replaces healthy liver tissue, causing extreme damage to the organ. Severe liver impairment can lead to significant problems with overall health and nutrition, gastrointestinal bleeding and even death. Abstinence can’t reverse cirrhosis, but staying away from alcohol may prevent further damage and improve symptoms. Cirrhosis symptoms may also be managed with medications and medical treatment. However, some patients may need a liver transplant to improve their health.

Alcohol affects brain function, too. A recent study showed that even short-term exposure to alcohol decreases the brain’s ability to get enough glucose, an important nutrient. Abstinence from alcohol can help the brain recover, but healing isn’t immediate.

It’s not all bad news, though! Research suggests that moderate consumption—defined as one drink per day for women and two per day for men—especially of red wine, can benefit cardiovascular health in adults. However, moderation is key, and any drinking in people younger than 21 is considered detrimental to health and development.

April is Alcohol Awareness Month. If you suspect that you or someone you know has a drinking problem, the National Drug and Alcohol Treatment Referral Routing Service can provide information and resources (800-662-HELP).


audrey-vasauskasAudrey A. Vasauskas, PhD, is an assistant professor of physiology at the Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine.

Dysphagia Can Be a Tough Pill to Swallow

Boy GI Tract

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Your body performs many physiological functions without you really paying attention to them. One example is swallowing. Chances are you’ve never really thought about what your body needs to do in order to swallow. Though it’s literally the lifeline that allows you to get the nutrients and calories you need to survive, swallowing is a bodily function often taken for granted—until you have trouble doing it.

The swallowing reflex is one of the first steps in the process of moving food through the digestive system. As many as 50 pairs of muscles and a countless number of nerves in the esophagus help get the job done. When something happens to one or more of the nerves or muscles involved in swallowing, you may have trouble getting food and/or drink to go down easily. Dysphagia is the term used to describe difficulty with swallowing. Symptoms of dysphagia can include:

  • Being unable to swallow completely
  • Feeling like there’s food stuck in your throat or chest
  • Coughing or gagging when swallowing
  • Having frequent heartburn
  • Drooling
  • Speaking with a hoarse voice

Dysphagia is more likely to occur in older adults than in younger people.  It’s not uncommon to have problems with swallowing after a stroke or if you have a neuromuscular disorder such as Parkinson’s disease or Lou Gehrig’s disease (ALS). But injury and illness are not the only causes of dysphagia. A recent study in the American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism reports that certain muscle relaxants and anti-anxiety medications may increase the risk of dysphagia.

Treatment varies, depending on the reason you’re having trouble. In some cases, physical therapy can help you learn new ways to eat safely. In others, a medication change may be in order.

Dysphagia may be a tough pill to swallow—literally and figuratively. But if you’ve had symptoms of this disorder, it’ll be much harder to take this important physiological function for granted in the future!

Erica Roth

Desperately Seeking Kidneys: New Future for the Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease?

renal colic - male adult - kidney disease

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The kidneys are an important pair of organs responsible for filtering water and waste out of the blood to produce urine. They help regulate blood pressure and produce hormones that the body needs to function properly.

Kidney disease is often considered a silent disease because there are usually no detectable symptoms in the early stages. Fourteen percent of adults in the U.S. suffer from chronic (long-term) kidney disease (CKD). Risk factors that can lead to CKD include diabetes, high blood pressure, aging and family history of kidney failure. African Americans, Hispanics and Native Americans have a higher risk of developing CKD.

When CKD progresses to kidney failure—also called end-stage renal disease—the only treatment options are dialysis or kidney transplant. People who receive dialysis are hooked up to a special machine that removes waste and excess water from the blood. It effectively acts as an artificial kidney outside the body. But dialysis is time-consuming. People in kidney failure need to have dialysis several times a week to survive. A kidney transplant requires a matching donor and comes with its own risks, including that transplantation is a major surgery and there is a possibility that the kidney(s) will be rejected.

Currently, there is no drug treatment to stop the progression of CKD. Researchers at the University of Mississippi Medical Center recently published a study in the American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology about a new treatment option. A man-made carrier system called elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) complex can be used to deliver a drug directly to the kidney to stop CKD from getting worse.

The ELP system is a new possibility for diseases like CKD that don’t seem to respond to traditional treatments, offering hope to people with kidney failure. The technology has only been studied in animals so far, but research suggests that targeted therapy could be a new frontier for the treatment of kidney disease.


Megan RhoadesMegan Rhoads, BS, is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Biology at the University of Kentucky.


When’s the Best Time to Eat? Your Body Clock Knows

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The American Heart Association recently released a statement suggesting that when and how often you eat could affect your risk for developing heart disease and stroke. Until now, the focus on diet has been primarily about how much and what you eat. This news—that the time of day you eat may also be important—could change the way people are able to manage their health.

Our bodies have natural daily patterns called circadian rhythms that occur roughly over a 24-hour cycle. Many biological processes are driven by circadian rhythms, including when you go to sleep and wake up, your body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure and the release of various hormones. A “master clock,” a tiny group of cells called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), located in the hypothalamus area of the brain manages circadian rhythms. This master clock is mostly controlled by changes in light.

Every cell in the body also has its own internal clock called a “peripheral clock.” Peripheral clocks make sure all of the cells’ functions are coordinated with the master clock. Animal studies show us the importance of keeping peripheral clocks in sync with the brain’s master clock. For example, when the peripheral clock in a mouse’s heart is disrupted, the mouse develops heart failure and dies at a much younger age than normal mice.

Unlike the master clock, peripheral clocks are more responsive to the availability of food than changes in light. As a result, eating at the “wrong” time of day could shift the rhythms of the peripheral clocks so they are out of sync with the master clock. For example, shift workers who work in the middle of the night are active when they would normally be asleep and eat at times when their body doesn’t expect food. They are at much greater risk for being overweight, becoming insulin resistant and developing cardiovascular disease because their master and peripheral clocks are likely to be out of sync.

Research in mice has shown that if they consume a high-fat meal at the end of their active period (the equivalent of a high-fat dinner for humans) they gain more weight, develop insulin resistance and have impaired cardiac function compared to mice that eat the same high-fat meal at the beginning of their active phase (breakfast).

Studies in people suggest that eating meals late in the day is linked to negative health effects, but a direct relationship has not been shown. Nevertheless, if when you eat is just as important as what you eat, it might not hurt to eat your larger meals earlier in the day if you can.


John Chatham

John Chatham, DPhil, is a professor of pathology and director of the Division of Molecular and Cellular Pathology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Meet Christina McManus, Associate Professor of Physiology


Christina McManus

Christina McManus, PhD, teaches physiology at the Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine.

March is Women’s History Month, a time when women who have challenged—and continue to challenge—traditional roles are celebrated. In the final installment of our series, we introduce you to APS member Christina McManus, PhD, an associate professor of physiology at the Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine. (Read part one, part two, part three and part four).

What is your title/role?

I am an associate professor of physiology at the Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine (ACOM).

What is your area of research?

My clinical research includes studying the changes in biomarkers (indicators of the presence of disease) in patients with chronic back pain who receive osteopathic manipulative therapy.

My medical educational research includes hosting a “Women in Science” camp designed to encourage and educate middle and high school girls about science-related careers.  We evaluate the girls’ interest in science careers before and after they attend.

How did you become interested in science? Were there women scientists who influenced you or whom you admired?

I always had an interest in science in middle and high school.  I grew up in a small town and didn’t know any women in science-related careers other than nurses.  When I went to college at the University of South Alabama, I took an honors research class and met some fascinating women researchers.  Being around a group of successful, confident and intelligent women—of diverse ages and backgrounds—made a huge impact on me.

What do you like most about your job?

I like teaching physiology and making a hard concept easy and medically relevant to medical school students. I have a great passion for our outreach programs at ACOM, such as the “Women in Science” camp.  More than 125 girls participate [in the camp]. It brings me much joy to provide them with the experience and exposure that I lacked as a kid.

What are your biggest challenges?

My biggest challenge is always finding a new and exciting way to teach science to kids of all ages and backgrounds.

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What do you see as the main barriers to having more women in STEM?

The biggest barrier in my opinion is that young women may not know anyone in a STEM field, and most of these jobs are held by men. Therefore, they don’t see how a woman can be successful in the sciences.

What would you say to young girls with an interest in science/physiology? How would you encourage them to pursue their studies?

I would encourage them to never limit themselves, and be anyone they want to be.  [They should] reach out to as many women as they can in this field [as mentors].  They will be amazed at the possibilities for women in STEM if they search hard enough.

– Erica Roth

Meet Karyn Hamilton, Health and Exercise Science Professor

Health and Exercise Science research at Colorado State Universit

Karyn Hamilton, PhD, teaches health and exercise science at Colorado State University.

March is Women’s History Month, a time when women who have challenged—and continue to challenge—traditional roles are celebrated. In part four of our series, we introduce you to Karyn Hamilton, PhD, a professor in the Department of Health and Exercise Science at Colorado State University. (Read part one, part two and part three).

What is your title/role?

I am co-director of the Translational Research on Aging and Chronic Disease Laboratory at Colorado State University.

What’s your area of research?

We study aging—particularly the role of stress resistance, resilience, mitochondrial function and proteostasis in delaying aging and increasing health span. We have a deep interest in skeletal muscle aging, though we make measurements in many other tissue types.

How did you become interested in science? Were there women scientists who influenced you/you admired?

My first real interest in science started with food. Food was always a focus as a child, an athlete and finally as an undergraduate student in food and nutritional biochemistry. I never really noticed that women were underrepresented in science during my undergraduate training, probably because women have always been at the heart of food science and nutritional sciences. One example is Agnes Fay Morgan (1884–1968). Dr. Morgan, an influential scientist at UC-Berkeley, made important contributions to current knowledge about vitamins and health. She showed that pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) is essential for normal coloring of hair and skin by demonstrating that a diet deficient in the B vitamins resulted in depigmentation fox hair. This led to the graying pattern of the then-fashionable silver fox furs. When Dr. Morgan presented these data and accepted the Garvan Medal of the American Chemical Society in 1939, she wore two fox stoles: one from a control animal, which had a deep lustrous shiny black coat, and another dingy gray pelt from a vitamin-deficient animal that was half the size of the other!

I also admire a number of modern-day women in my field. Drs. Wendy Kohrt, Esther Dupont-Versteegden, Charlotte Peterson and Sue Bodine all serve as role models for me. Their rigorous approach to science, influential discoveries in the field of skeletal muscle physiology, and leadership and advocacy for women in science set them apart—not just as women in science, but as leaders in scientific excellence.

What do you like most about your job?

Three of my favorite parts are:

  • Collaboration: Pooling individual strengths into larger collaborations with greater resource availability, problem-solving, creativity, techniques and analytical approaches is vital and leads to discoveries with greater impact.
  • Innovation: It’s an important aspect of scientific inquiry, and the innovative approaches we develop in our lab foster paradigm-shifting research and drive new collaborations.
  • Teamwork: A “party of one” is far less enjoyable than a group sharing enthusiasm for a common goal.

    Women's history month design with multicultural hands

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What are your biggest challenges?

Juggling many responsibilities—all of which I want to fulfill to the very best of my abilities—and keeping the research team happy and cared for. Learning to mentor and respond to individual student needs is both challenging and rewarding.

What would you say to young girls with an interest in science/physiology? How would you encourage them to pursue their studies?

Girls [should] never learn that they have less of a chance of success in STEM compared to boys—or compared to their potential achievements in other fields. They should be free to choose what they find most interesting. Helping young people engage in fun STEM activities at an early age is important. Male and female mentors in the sciences are critical.

Erica Roth



Meet Sue Bodine, Physiology Professor

Sue Bodine

Sue Bodine, PhD, is a physiology professor at the University of California, Davis.

March is Women’s History Month, a time when women who have challenged—and continue to challenge—traditional roles are celebrated. In part three of our series, we introduce you to APS member and incoming editor-in-chief of the Journal of Applied Physiology, Sue C. Bodine, PhD. (Read part one and part two).

What is your title/role (including institution name)?

I am a professor of physiology at the University of California, Davis.

What’s your area of research?

I am a neuromuscular physiologist whose general field of study is skeletal muscle plasticity. My primary research interest is understanding the mechanisms that regulate skeletal muscle size under growth and atrophy conditions. I am also interested in understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for muscle’s adaptation to exercise and inactivity and in determining the potential role for exercise in disease prevention and increased quality of life with aging.

How did you become interested in science? Were there women scientists who influenced you/you admired?

I was always interested in science as a high school student but had no exposure to basic research and could have never imagined getting a PhD. The truth is that prior to attending college, I had never met anyone with a PhD and had no idea of what was involved in getting a degree of that level.

I became interested in scientific research as an undergraduate student at UCLA, where I majored in kinesiology. I really enjoyed my lower-division anatomy and physiology courses. Once I started taking upper-division major courses, I was introduced to primary research studies and wanted to know more. I was fortunate that there were many opportunities to participate in research as an undergraduate student. I enjoyed research so much that I applied to the UCLA Departmental Scholars program, which enabled me to work on my bachelor’s and master’s degrees at the same time. It was a great opportunity that ultimately led to my decision to continue my graduate training as a doctoral student.

What do you like most about your job?

The thing I like most about my job is the discovery. Designing experiments and making new discoveries is very exciting. I don’t really see what I do as a job but rather as a career and an adventure. The other fun part of this career is that you get to meet interesting people from all over the world.

What is your biggest challenge?

The biggest challenge these days is maintaining funding to support the laboratory. It is a constant process.

What do you see as the main barriers to having more women in STEM?

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I think that the major barrier to having more women in STEM is the culture. More effort needs to be directed toward bringing men and women together to discuss the current culture and how it needs to change to be inclusive and encouraging to everyone.

What would you say to young girls with an interest in science/physiology? How would you encourage them to pursue their studies?

I would encourage young girls to pursue their interests in science and tell them that their goals are obtainable with hard work. The road may have many hurdles, but with self-motivation, determination and perseverance you can be successful. You may need encouragement and help at times to be successful. I recommend finding friends and mentors who can provide support and good advice.

Erica Roth


Meet Sabrina Ramelli, Lung Biology Student

Sabrina Ramelli (2)

Sabrina Ramelli studies lung biology at the University of South Alabama.

March is Women’s History Month, a time when women who have challenged—and continue to challenge—traditional roles are celebrated. In part two of our series, we introduce you to APS member Sabrina Ramelli, a PhD student at the University of South Alabama. (Read part one here.)

What is your title/role?

I’m a PhD candidate at the University of South Alabama and a member of the Center for Lung Biology in the College of Medicine.

What’s your area of research?

My area of research is in lung biology, specifically asthma. I am looking for potential targets for hard-to-treat and steroid-resistant asthma.

How did you become interested in science? Were there women scientists who influenced you/you admired?

I have been interested in science for as long as I can remember. I never really had a woman scientist that I looked up to as a child, but I admired both my anatomy and chemistry teachers who were women. Being a student in their classes really solidified that just because I’m a girl doesn’t mean that I can’t do science. In fact, they were proof that women belong in the science world.

What do you like most about your job?

It’s very difficult to pinpoint one thing I like the most. I love the project that I am working on, and I really love the Center for Lung Biology program I am a part of. Although the program is demanding, I am a better scientist for it.

What is your biggest challenge?

My biggest challenge right now is determining what I want to do next [in my career]. There are so many options, it is hard to pick.

Women's history month design with multicultural hands

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What do you see as the main barriers to having more women in STEM?

As a former high school teacher, [I think] the biggest barrier to having women in STEM is [the women] themselves. Many girls don’t want to be labeled the “science nerd” and, therefore, stop following their passion. Breaking down that stigma is only the beginning. After high school, women hear sexist statements and phrases like “women don’t belong in science” or “good old boys’ club.” We need to stand up and not allow this behavior to begin at a young age.

Erica Roth

Ida Henrietta Hyde: A Trailblazer in Physiology



Ida Hyde at Heidelberg University, 1896.

March is Women’s History Month, a time when women who have challenged—and continue to challenge—traditional roles are celebrated. This month, the I Spy Physiology blog will introduce you to several female physiologists, starting with the first female member of APS, Ida Henrietta Hyde.

Ida Henrietta Hyde was born in 1857 in Davenport, Iowa, the daughter of German immigrants. She went to public school and took jobs as a dressmaker and milliner (a person who designs or sells women’s hats) to help support her family. After reading a book about natural science, she became fascinated with biology. This newfound interest in life sciences inspired her to save as much of her salary as possible so that she could go to college someday.

In 1882, Hyde started classes at the University of Illinois at Champaign but was soon forced to withdraw to help care for her sickly brother. During that time, she taught elementary school in Chicago, where she was instrumental in introducing a science curriculum to the Chicago public school system.

By the late 1880s, Hyde was able to return to college and went on to earn a degree in biological sciences from Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y. She worked in research at the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole in Massachusetts before traveling to Europe on a fellowship to pursue a PhD—something women were rarely able to do. Hyde’s early work centered on the neurophysiology of vertebrates and invertebrates, but she also conducted research in cardiology. Her article “The Effect of Distention of the Ventricle on the Flow of Blood through the Walls of the Heart” was published in the first issue of the American Journal of Physiology in 1898.

Women's history month design with multicultural hands

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By 1902, Hyde was back in the U.S. and had become an associate professor of physiology at the University of Kansas. She eventually became head of the department and was nominated for APS membership in 1902. She was the only female member of APS until 1913. Today, APS is proud to count more than 3,100 women as members.

APS membership was just one of Hyde’s many accomplishments as a scientist and physiologist. Her landmark achievements paved the way for many more women who follow in her footsteps. Read more about her in The Physiologist.

Erica Roth

How Obesity Fuels Inactivity


Women jogging in Central Park New York

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More than one in three adults and one in six children in the U.S. are obese. Obesity—defined as a serious degree of overweight—is a leading cause of death, disease and disability. Although obesity has been linked to genetic disorders, it is most often caused by unhealthy behaviors and, therefore, is preventable and reversible.

Throughout the day, we get calories from food and we burn the calories off when we move our bodies. When we eat more calories than we burn, our bodies store the excess calories as fat, which accumulates over time. Eating too many calories and not moving enough are two factors that can cause obesity. Only one in five adults in the U.S. meets minimum physical activity recommendations, making physical inactivity a significant contributor to obesity. People who are overweight need to eat fewer calories and/or increase physical activity to lose excess fat. These lifestyle changes are often challenging, and may be compounded by the fact that exercise may be harder to do when you’re obese.


 The cycle of obesity. Credit: Kim Henige

Carrying excess body weight can make joint pain more likely, which makes physical activity more difficult. Now, researchers may have discovered another reason excess body weight makes physical activity more difficult. A recent study published in the Journal of Applied Physiology shows that the working muscles of obese mice tired out more quickly than those of lean mice. These findings support a cycle of obesity where inactivity leads to obesity, which leads to more inactivity. Breaking the negative cycle of obesity and re-establishing a healthy body weight is possible, but takes considerable dedication and persistence to overcome the barriers and discomfort of the process.

Remember that the path to a healthier weight starts by taking a step! Visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website for weight loss strategies, success stories of people who’ve lost weight and kept it off and more.

Kim HenigeKim Henige, EdD, CSCS, ACSM EP-C, is an associate professor and undergraduate program coordinator in the department of kinesiology at California State University, Northridge.