How Obesity Fuels Inactivity

 

Women jogging in Central Park New York

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More than one in three adults and one in six children in the U.S. are obese. Obesity—defined as a serious degree of overweight—is a leading cause of death, disease and disability. Although obesity has been linked to genetic disorders, it is most often caused by unhealthy behaviors and, therefore, is preventable and reversible.

Throughout the day, we get calories from food and we burn the calories off when we move our bodies. When we eat more calories than we burn, our bodies store the excess calories as fat, which accumulates over time. Eating too many calories and not moving enough are two factors that can cause obesity. Only one in five adults in the U.S. meets minimum physical activity recommendations, making physical inactivity a significant contributor to obesity. People who are overweight need to eat fewer calories and/or increase physical activity to lose excess fat. These lifestyle changes are often challenging, and may be compounded by the fact that exercise may be harder to do when you’re obese.

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 The cycle of obesity. Credit: Kim Henige

Carrying excess body weight can make joint pain more likely, which makes physical activity more difficult. Now, researchers may have discovered another reason excess body weight makes physical activity more difficult. A recent study published in the Journal of Applied Physiology shows that the working muscles of obese mice tired out more quickly than those of lean mice. These findings support a cycle of obesity where inactivity leads to obesity, which leads to more inactivity. Breaking the negative cycle of obesity and re-establishing a healthy body weight is possible, but takes considerable dedication and persistence to overcome the barriers and discomfort of the process.

Remember that the path to a healthier weight starts by taking a step! Visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website for weight loss strategies, success stories of people who’ve lost weight and kept it off and more.

Kim HenigeKim Henige, EdD, CSCS, ACSM EP-C, is an associate professor and undergraduate program coordinator in the department of kinesiology at California State University, Northridge.

Go Ahead, Wear Your Heart on Your Sleeve!

Jousting Competition

A jousting knight wears his heart on his sleeve. Credit: iStock

In medieval times, a jousting knight would wear the colors of the lady he was courting tied around his arm. Hence, the phrase “Wear your heart on your sleeve” was born. Today, we use this romantic phrase to describe someone who expresses their emotions openly. How applicable that ancient phrase really is to maintaining a healthy heart!

In a landmark paper, a group of scientists discussed how stress and social interactions with others affected the health of the heart. It is well-known that stress is a major factor in the development of heart disease. This is because stress is a double whammy: It activates the “fight-or-flight” nervous response, and it causes inflammation in the cells that line blood vessels. Both of these events can damage blood vessels in the heart.

Research shows that positive social interaction expressing emotion is important for heart health. Support from a spouse or partner, friends or other groups can reduce stress and help you stick to a healthy diet and exercise program to minimize your risks.

Heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, with annual deaths creeping up to 24 million. Reducing stress and anxiety is an important aspect of keeping your heart healthy. Exercise, yoga, meditation and even deep breathing can promote a sense of calm when tensions mount. Try running or yoga with a friend or join an exercise class to keep you on track for a healthy heart. Go ahead, wear your heart on your sleeve—it’s good for you!

February is American Heart Month. You can find more information about keeping your ticker ticking on the American Heart Association’s website.

audrey-vasauskasAudrey A. Vasauskas, PhD, is an assistant professor of physiology at the Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine.

Handling the Pain of Acid Reflux at Holiday Time

Acid reflux

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With Thanksgiving coming up, eating—of all things rich, indulgent and delicious—is top of mind for many Americans. But for people with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), eating this type of food often and in large quantities can be a challenge. This week is GERD Awareness Week, a good time to learn how to prevent GERD symptoms and still enjoy your holiday season.

GERD is the return of stomach contents, including acid, into the esophagus, sometimes known as acid reflux. More than 60 million people in the U.S. experience GERD symptoms, such as frequent heartburn, at least once a month.

You may have a higher risk of having GERD if you:

  • produce a lot of gastric acid
  • have a hiatal hernia
  • have a weak lower esophageal sphincter (the ring of muscle between the esophagus and stomach)
  • are obese
  • smoke
  • drink alcohol or a lot of caffeine

Women have additional risk factors, including being a young adult and adopting a stooping or slouching posture. Certain foods, including peppermint, chocolate, fatty or fried foods, and acidic fruits, also raise the risk of developing heartburn and acid reflux.

Simple dietary and lifestyle changes can be effective for many people to reduce the frequency and intensity of GERD symptoms, including:

  • losing weight if needed
  • quitting smoking
  • eating small meals throughout the day
  • avoiding foods that cause symptoms
  • waiting at least two hours before lying down after a meal

Another first line of treatment is medication, such as antacids or proton pump inhibitors. These drugs are available over the counter and by prescription from your doctor and reduce or stop the production of stomach acid to prevent symptoms.

If occasional heartburn bothers you after a big meal, try making lifestyle changes to help you feel better. If your symptoms persist, your doctor may look deeper into the possible causes for your discomfort. Knowing the risk factors for GERD can help you avoid complications and stay healthy throughout the holidays and all year long.

To learn more about GERD, visit the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website

 

layla-al-nakkashLayla Al-Nakkash, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Physiology, at Midwestern University, Glendale, Ariz. She is the course director for medical physiology for medical and podiatry students. Her area of research relates to understanding how intestinal dysfunction (in diseases such as cystic fibrosis and diabetes) can be ameliorated by changes in diet.

Nanoparticles: A High-Tech Solution for Lung Cancer Treatment

No smoking badge

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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death for both men and women in the U.S., according to the American Cancer Society (ACS). Responsible for 1 in 4 cancer deaths, there were approximately 224,390 new cases and 158,000 lung cancer deaths in 2016 alone.

Despite the seemingly grim outlook for lung cancer patients, many people diagnosed with the disease are cured. The key for these positive outcomes is early cancer detection and treatment. A number of new and innovative therapies have been developed that have contributed greatly to the prolonged survival of patients. However, as the statistics show, there is still a vital need for better treatment options to further improve survival rates.

A main focus in cancer research has been to target the cell communication that causes normal cells to change into cancerous cells. Our understanding of these processes has grown significantly during the past decade, and scientists have been able to point to a number of proteins that are involved in this transformation. Recently, a group of scientists combined its knowledge of these cellular processes with a high-tech anti-cancer drug delivery method to wipe out lung cancer cells. They used nanoparticles with a drug that specifically targeted a protein known to be involved in this cell-changing process. Nanoparticles are very tiny particles between 1 and 100 nanometers—about 1,000 times smaller than a cell—that are made of special material depending on their use. Here, they used a special type of nanoparticle that allowed the drug to get into the lung cancer cells.

In addition to new therapies to fight cancer, there are low-tech ways you can reduce your cancer risk. One of the main causes of lung cancer is smoking tobacco products. The No. 1 way to stay healthy is to avoid tobacco, including smokeless tobacco products, which can also cause cancer. Tomorrow, November 17, is the Great American Smokeout—a good day to make a commitment to quit. ACS has a number of stop-smoking resources available on its website. Additionally, eating healthy and staying active will reduce your risk for cancer-related illness.

audrey-vasauskasAudrey A. Vasauskas, PhD, is an assistant professor of physiology at the Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine.

Depression + Pregnancy = Diabetes?

Pregnant Frown

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Morning sickness, swollen ankles and a growing belly are just a few of the many physiological changes that women experience during pregnancy. The changes  we can see are just the tip of the iceberg. Blood volume, bones, heart rate, skin and many other parts of a woman’s body function differently during pregnancy.

Pregnancy-related changes can sometimes lead to more serious health consequences for mother and baby during pregnancy and beyond. For example, gestational diabetes—a temporary condition in which the body can’t process sugar during pregnancy the way it usually does—can lead to a higher risk of other pregnancy complications, including having a large baby and increased chances of developing diabetes mellitus down the road. Now researchers have found a link between gestational diabetes and depression during pregnancy, a condition which affects an estimated 13 percent of moms-to-be.

A recent study showed that women who had more symptoms of depression in the first and second trimesters were at the greatest risk of developing gestational diabetes. The study also found that women who had gestational diabetes were four times more likely to develop postpartum depression after giving birth. Researchers say the relationship between the two conditions needs more study, but they think that the chemical changes in the brain that occur with depression during pregnancy may affect how we break down sugar.

These links emphasize the need to tune in to emotional shifts that many pregnant women experience. When crying jags and lack of energy lasts for more than two weeks or if symptoms get increasingly worse, it may be more than just pregnancy hormones at work. Women should also look out for the physical symptoms of depression which may include:

  • headaches
  • general aches and pains
  • stomach problems
  • loss of appetite (which may sometimes be mistaken for a side effect of morning sickness)

Now that doctors are learning more about the link between depression and gestational diabetes, they can monitor their patients more closely for both conditions during pregnancy. For more information about depression during and after pregnancy, visit the federal Office on Women’s Health website.

Erica Roth

 

 

Shhh … I’m Hibernating!

Bear nest

Man crawling out of uninhabited bear hibernating den (not recommended). Credit: IStock

As the days grow shorter, many animals, such as bats, bears and bees, begin getting ready to hibernate. It’s a process that allows animals to spend the winter months conserving energy by reducing metabolism, oxygen consumption and body temperature. So why don’t humans do it, too? Well, a new study suggests that some humans—specifically those with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), which affects more than 2.5 million people in the U.S.—may be doing something similar to hibernating.

People with chronic fatigue syndrome experience extreme fatigue. But this is not your run-of-the-mill kind of post-holiday exhaustion. It is severe fatigue that does not get better, even with sleep. People with CFS may also experience issues related to memory and headaches. It’s not clear why people develop the disorder, but some theories point to infections, exposure to chemicals or stress as possible causes.

The new study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academies of Science, looked at specific molecules (metabolites) that are byproducts of energy production (metabolism) in the blood of people who have CFS and healthy people who do not have the disease. The researchers found that people with the condition had 80 percent fewer metabolites compared to the healthy control subjects. Those with chronic fatigue syndrome also had some impairment in the way their metabolism functioned. The findings suggest a less active metabolism in people with CFS similar to metabolic activity seen in animals that hibernate. Reduction in metabolic state is thought to be a defensive strategy all humans can use to cope with situations in which environmental or other stressors are present. The problem for people with CFS is that this defense mechanism stays turned on, slowing metabolism—and draining energy—on an ongoing basis.

What’s great about this study is that researchers and clinicians finally have a set of chemical markers in the blood that they can use to test people for CFS. The hope is that by understanding what’s going wrong, metabolically speaking, a treatment can be developed.

Karen SweazeaKaren Sweazea, PhD, is an associate professor in the School of Nutrition & Health Promotion and the School of Life Sciences at Arizona State University.