Rapamycin, a drug used to prevent organ transplant rejection, may also turn back time—in dogs at least. A study is underway to see if rapamycin can delay aging in dogs, and the puppy-like energy of one canine participant, eight-year-old Bela, gives some hope that the drug might work. Rapamycin is one of several drugs prescribed to treat other conditions that are being studied for their potential to help humans grow old without the health problems of aging. These drugs are particularly promising because they are already being used by people and are well-tolerated by the body. Other drugs being investigated include:
- Metformin: Metformin is a commonly prescribed treatment for type 2 diabetes. The specifics of how it counteracts aging are still being debated, but the scientific community generally agrees that small doses of metformin can improve metabolic health, reduce cancer risk and lengthen lifespan. The Targeting/Taming Aging with Metformin study is currently underway to test if metformin has anti-aging effects in people, as it did in mice.
- Aspirin: Constant low-level inflammation is considered a hallmark sign of aging, so researchers wonder if anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin can help. Studies have found that lifelong use of aspirin lengthens the average lifespan of male mice but does not increase maximum lifespan. No effects have been seen in female mice. Other studies in mice have shown that aspirin can improve immune, metabolic and cardiovascular health. However, aspirin also prevents blood from clotting and irritates the intestines, which can increase the risk of internal bleeding.
Researchers are also looking at lifestyle choices for their fountain-of-youth benefits, including:
- Vegan diet: A vegan diet reduces the consumption of methionine, a nutrient abundant in eggs and meat. Eating less methionine has been shown to increase the lifespan of yeast, worms, flies and rodents. However, methionine is an essential nutrient for the body, so its anti-aging properties may be counteracted by the health effects of not having enough of it.
- Calorie restriction: Reduced-calorie diets are a well-established method for extending the lifespan in various species, including certain strains of mice. However, in other mice strains, calorie restriction dramatically shortens the lifespan.
This detrimental effect in mice demonstrates a primary concern for testing anti-aging treatments in humans: A drug or lifestyle switch might shorten a healthy participant’s life. While it will take many years to find out if a treatment can truly increase longevity, we already know that wisdom only comes with time—and age.
Maggie Kuo, PhD, is the former Communications and Social Media Coordinator for APS. Catch more of her writing in the Careers Section of Science Magazine.