With the weather getting warmer, you may be tempted to bare more skin in the coming months. However, sunnier days can increase your risk of skin cancer if you don’t protect yourself. May is Melanoma/Skin Cancer Detection and Prevention Month. Read on to learn more about your body’s largest organ and how melanoma grows.
Your skin is composed of three main layers: the layer that you see (epidermis), the layer directly beneath the epidermis (dermis) and the deepest, innermost layer (hypodermis). Melanoma, the most dangerous form of skin cancer, starts with an abnormal growth of cells at the bottom of the epidermis layer of the skin. These cells, called melanocytes, produce melanin to give skin its color.
Exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays is a major risk factor for developing melanoma. Even just a handful of blistering sunburns during childhood or adolescence can double your risk of developing melanoma later in your life. UV exposure can damage and cause mistakes (mutations) in the DNA of the melanocytes. UV-related mutations that occur in molecules important for controlling cell growth can lead to skin cancer.
Although only about 5 percent of all skin-related cancers are melanoma, it’s the deadliest form, causing approximately 10,000 deaths per year in the U.S. People with melanoma that is confined to a small area (primary melanoma) have close to a 90 percent survival rate. However, the recovery rate is significantly lower in melanoma that starts in the skin and spreads to other parts of the body (metastatic melanoma).
Metastatic melanoma most commonly spreads to the liver, lungs, bones and brain. This is troublesome for several reasons. Once cancer has spread, it is extremely difficult to determine the original cancer type, making treatment problematic. Also, cancer cells compete with normal cells for nutrients. Because cancer cells grow quickly, the body often ends up sending more nutrients (sometimes unintentionally) to the cancer, allowing its size to further increase. Early detection of melanoma is extremely important, giving you the best chance for treatment and survival.
Visit the Skin Cancer Foundation to learn how to reduce your risk of developing skin cancer.
Adam Morrow, PhD, is an assistant professor of biochemistry at the Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine.
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